All Nobel Laureates in Medicine
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- 2008 - Harald zur Hausen, FranĂ§oise BarrĂ©-Sinoussi, Luc Montagnier
- 2007 - Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans, Oliver Smithies
- 2006 - Andrew Z. Fire, Craig C. Mello
- 2005 - Barry J. Marshall, J. Robin Warren
- 2004 - Richard Axel, Linda B. Buck
- 2003 - Paul C. Lauterbur, Sir Peter Mansfield
- 2002 - Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz, John E. Sulston
- 2001 - Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt, Sir Paul Nurse
- 2000 - Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, Eric R. Kandel
- 1999 - GĂĽnter Blobel
- 1998 - Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad
- 1997 - Stanley B. Prusiner
- 1996 - Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel
- 1995 - Edward B. Lewis, Christiane NĂĽsslein-Volhard, Eric F. Wieschaus
- 1994 - Alfred G. Gilman, Martin Rodbell
- 1993 - Richard J. Roberts, Phillip A. Sharp
- 1992 - Edmond H. Fischer, Edwin G. Krebs
- 1991 - Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann
- 1990 - Joseph E. Murray, E. Donnall Thomas
- 1989 - J. Michael Bishop, Harold E. Varmus
- 1988 - Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion, George H. Hitchings
- 1987 - Susumu Tonegawa
- 1986 - Stanley Cohen, Rita Levi-Montalcini
- 1985 - Michael S. Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein
- 1984 - Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. KĂ¶hler, CĂ©sar Milstein
- 1983 - Barbara McClintock
- 1982 - Sune K. BergstrĂ¶m, Bengt I. Samuelsson, John R. Vane
- 1981 - Roger W. Sperry, David H. Hubel, Torsten N. Wiesel
- 1980 - Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset, George D. Snell
- 1979 - Allan M. Cormack, Godfrey N. Hounsfield
- 1978 - Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, Hamilton O. Smith
- 1977 - Roger Guillemin, Andrew V. Schally, Rosalyn Yalow
- 1976 - Baruch S. Blumberg, D. Carleton Gajdusek
- 1975 - David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco, Howard M. Temin
- 1974 - Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, George E. Palade
- 1973 - Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen
- 1972 - Gerald M. Edelman, Rodney R. Porter
- 1971 - Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
- 1970 - Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler, Julius Axelrod
- 1969 - Max DelbrĂĽck, Alfred D. Hershey, Salvador E. Luria
- 1968 - Robert W. Holley, H. Gobind Khorana, Marshall W. Nirenberg
- 1967 - Ragnar Granit, Haldan K. Hartline, George Wald
- 1966 - Peyton Rous, Charles B. Huggins
- 1965 - FranĂ§ois Jacob, AndrĂ© Lwoff, Jacques Monod
- 1964 - Konrad Bloch, Feodor Lynen
- 1963 - Sir John Eccles, Alan L. Hodgkin, Andrew F. Huxley
- 1962 - Francis Crick, James Watson, Maurice Wilkins
- 1961 - Georg von BĂ©kĂ©sy
- 1960 - Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Peter Medawar
- 1959 - Severo Ochoa, Arthur Kornberg
- 1958 - George Beadle, Edward Tatum, Joshua Lederberg
- 1957 - Daniel Bovet
- 1956 - AndrĂ© F. Cournand, Werner Forssmann, Dickinson W. Richards
- 1955 - Hugo Theorell
- 1954 - John F. Enders, Thomas H. Weller, Frederick C. Robbins
- 1953 - Hans Krebs, Fritz Lipmann
- 1952 - Selman A. Waksman
- 1951 - Max Theiler
- 1950 - Edward C. Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein, Philip S. Hench
- 1949 - Walter Hess, Egas Moniz
- 1948 - Paul MĂĽller
- 1947 - Carl Cori, Gerty Cori, Bernardo Houssay
- 1946 - Hermann J. Muller
- 1945 - Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst B. Chain, Sir Howard Florey
- 1944 - Joseph Erlanger, Herbert S. Gasser
- 1943 - Henrik Dam, Edward A. Doisy
- 1942 - The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
- 1941 - The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
- 1940 - The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
- 1939 - Gerhard Domagk
- 1938 - Corneille Heymans
- 1937 - Albert Szent-GyĂ¶rgyi
- 1936 - Sir Henry Dale, Otto Loewi
- 1935 - Hans Spemann
- 1934 - George H. Whipple, George R. Minot, William P. Murphy
- 1933 - Thomas H. Morgan
- 1932 - Sir Charles Sherrington, Edgar Adrian
- 1931 - Otto Warburg
- 1930 - Karl Landsteiner
- 1929 - Christiaan Eijkman, Sir Frederick Hopkins
- 1928 - Charles Nicolle
- 1927 - Julius Wagner-Jauregg
- 1926 - Johannes Fibiger
- 1925 - The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
- 1924 - Willem Einthoven
- 1923 - Frederick G. Banting, John Macleod
- 1922 - Archibald V. Hill, Otto Meyerhof
- 1921 - The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
- 1920 - August Krogh
- 1919 - Jules Bordet
- 1918 - The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
- 1917 - The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
- 1916 - The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
- 1915 - The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
- 1914 - Robert BĂˇrĂˇny
- 1913 - Charles Richet
- 1912 - Alexis Carrel
- 1911 - Allvar Gullstrand
- 1910 - Albrecht Kossel
- 1909 - Theodor Kocher
- 1908 - Ilya Mechnikov, Paul Ehrlich
- 1907 - Alphonse Laveran
- 1906 - Camillo Golgi, Santiago RamĂłn y Cajal
- 1905 - Robert Koch
- 1904 - Ivan Pavlov
- 1903 - Niels Ryberg Finsen
- 1902 - Ronald Ross
- 1901 - Emil von Behring
NobelPrize.org (2008). All Nobel Laureates in medicine. Retrieved October 29, 2008, from http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/Â
Inspiring Your Inner Genius:Â ResearchersÂ Who Think and Do.
Larry Brilliant's wish:
I wish that you would help build a global system to detect each new disease or disaster as quickly as it emerges or occurs.
As revealed at TED2007:
Larry's story is that of someone daring to take a journey and then letting the work teach him.
When Larry and his team at Google.org talked to the disaster community about his wish, they told him simply: In a disaster, "We've got to be able to find each other." Their needs broadened his vision. Now, along with early detection, his system will offer disaster-relief agencies a way to communicate and share data, to provide coordinated early response to disasters.
The system is called INSTEDD (International Networked System for Total Early Disease Detection).
In March 2007, the new system undergoes its first pilot project, Working with the Rockefeller Foundation and NTI (Nuclear Threat Initiative), six countries along the Mekong River (Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and the Hunan region of China) will do a tabletop exercise about how they would react to a pandemic flu.
INSTEDD's goal is to become a trusted source of comprehensive disaster tracking and response tools that enable users to operate more effectively in times of crisis; and, more than that, to foster a community of individuals, nonprofits, companies and government agencies involved in the detection of, and response to, public threats.
How it came together:
- Sergey Brin, Larry Page and their colleagues hired Larry as head of Google.org, creating an immensely well-resourced platform for this wish and much more. (Sergey made Larry the job offer on a comment card -- which Larry has framed!)
- The Silicon Valley Community Foundation provided seed funding to build organization around Dr. Brilliant's wish -- and begin building the system, known as INSTEDD.
- INSTEDD received significant pledges of financial support from members of the TED and foundation communities.
- TEDster Steven Addis and Addis Creson are providing pro bono naming and branding support.
- TEDster Bob Angus and his team at A&R Edelman provided pro bono PR and communications support.
- An INSTEDD board was formed: Larry Brilliant: Executive Director, Google.org; Peter Carpenter: President, Managing Director, INSTEDD; David Heymann: Executive Director, Communicable Diseases, WHO; Tara O'Toole: CEO and Director, Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
- Numerous experts from both the TED and the disaster prevention and response communities donated their time and intellect, including the WHO, Mercy Corps, OCHA, Benetech, Humanity United, the Ethical Globalization Initiative, IBM, ProMed, CDC, the Business & Human Rights Resource Centre, NetHope, the International Committee of the Red Cross, OxFam America, the Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response, the World Food Programme and UNICEF.
Into the future:
Says Mark Smolinski, Threat Detective at Google.org: "We don't even have standards on how we collect basic information on human demographics or health info during a disaster. That's something that an organization like INSTEDD could help promote."
>> WatchÂ Video
Alan Russell is a professor of surgery -- and of chemical engineering. In crossing the two fields, he is expanding our palette of treatments for disease, injury and congenital defects. We can treat symptoms, he says, or we can replace our damaged parts with bioengineered tissue. As he puts it: "If newts can regenerate a lost limb, why can't we?"
The founding director of the McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, at the University of Pittsburgh, Russell leads an ambitious biomedicine program that explores tissue engineering, stem cell research, biosurgery and artificial and biohybrid organs. Lately, they've started testing a new kind of heart pump, figured out that Botox can help with enlarged prostate, and identified human adipose cells as having the possibility to repair skeletal muscle. In his own Russell Lab, his team is studying antimicrobial surfaces and helping to develop a therapy to reduce scarring on muscle after injury.
He's also co-founder of Agentase, a company that makes an enzyme-based detector for chemical warfare agents.
"Russell's own research, a blend of biotech and chemical engineering, is directed at finding ways to put biological molecules into everyday materials."